An individual’s genetic code affects how their body reacts to and metabolises specific food types. By aligning their nutritional intake in accordance with their genetics, for example, a person may reduce their risk of certain diseases, such as coronary heart disease.15 At the moment, such strategies are only rarely based on genetic information. In fact, “personalised nutrition” is an umbrella term for multiple approaches, including nutritional genomics, precision nutrition and many more. Nonetheless, it remains true that nutritional advice, products and services tailored to an individual can be more effective in promoting health, longevity and work (and, in particular, sporting) performance than generic, one-size-fits-all approaches to nutrition.16
In addition to genome-based information, biochemical analyses such as blood or stool tests carried out by specialists and healthcare providers can offer high specificity of an individual’s nutritional profile, their gut microbiome and the resulting optimal nutrition. However, mainstream approaches to personalised nutrition will hinge on the increasing availability and sophistication of smartphone-linked self-monitoring technologies.