Organoids
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Organoids
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Organoids
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5.5SyntheticBiology5.4Science ofthe Originsof Life5.3FutureEconomics5.2Future ofEducation5.1ComplexSystemsScience4.4Democracy-affirming Technologies4.1Science-basedDiplomacy4.2Advances inScience Diplomacy4.3Digital Technologiesand Conflict3.7InfectiousDiseases3.6Solar RadiationModification3.5OceanStewardship3.4SpaceResources3.3Future FoodSystems3.2WorldSimulation3.1Decarbonisation2.6FutureTherapeutics2.5Organoids2.4ConsciousnessAugmentation2.3RadicalHealthExtension2.2HumanApplicationsof GeneticEngineering2.1CognitiveEnhancement1.6CollectiveIntelligence1.5AugmentedReality1.4BiologicalComputing1.3Brain-inspiredComputing1.2QuantumTechnologies1.1AdvancedAIHIGHEST ANTICIPATIONPOTENTIAL
5.5SyntheticBiology5.4Science ofthe Originsof Life5.3FutureEconomics5.2Future ofEducation5.1ComplexSystemsScience4.4Democracy-affirming Technologies4.1Science-basedDiplomacy4.2Advances inScience Diplomacy4.3Digital Technologiesand Conflict3.7InfectiousDiseases3.6Solar RadiationModification3.5OceanStewardship3.4SpaceResources3.3Future FoodSystems3.2WorldSimulation3.1Decarbonisation2.6FutureTherapeutics2.5Organoids2.4ConsciousnessAugmentation2.3RadicalHealthExtension2.2HumanApplicationsof GeneticEngineering2.1CognitiveEnhancement1.6CollectiveIntelligence1.5AugmentedReality1.4BiologicalComputing1.3Brain-inspiredComputing1.2QuantumTechnologies1.1AdvancedAIHIGHEST ANTICIPATIONPOTENTIAL

Emerging Topic:

2.5Organoids

    Associated Sub-Fields

    Research on disease and treatment pathways has been hampered by the fact that cultured cell lines do not respond to interventions in the same way that cells do in their natural environment of complex three-dimensional tissues. This is part of the reason why promising in-vitro studies must currently be followed up by animal studies, especially to test drugs. Organoids --- simplified versions of real organs --- promise to serve as a better proxy for the study of our tissues than either cell lines or animal models.

    Brain organoids have already shed light on the risk genes that contribute to autism1 and how Zika inhibits brain development;2 they can now be probed for electrical activity in a manner analogous to actual human brains.3 Organoids from other tissues have been used for drug screening,4 while “tumoroids” have yielded better cancer models.5 The future of personalised organoids offers a way to predict treatment outcomes, avoid toxicities and develop targeted therapies.

    As yet, organoids remain primitive versions of real organs, crudely recreating their basic features and functions. However, advances in enabling technologies will soon allow them to become far more complex, with greater standardisation of procedures facilitating easily replicated results. With further advances, we should be able to use “embryoids” to observe post-implantation developmental events outside of the womb, making it possible to probe fundamental principles of human development and disease.6 We will also test tumoroids to find the exact medicine that will best kill tumours in the patient. Eventually, we may be able to generate organs for transplantation.7

    Selection of GESDA best reads and further key reports

    In 2018, Rossi et al published “Progress and potential in organoid research“ in *Nature Reviews Genetic*s, which closely examined the field's potential.8 Hans Clevers in “Modeling Development and Disease with Organoids“9 and Hofer & Lutolf in “Engineering Organoids” summarised the major technological trends and applications for organoids.10 In “3D Brain Organoids: Studying Brain Development and Disease Outside the Embryo”, Arlotta et al. compared the biology of brains and brain organoids, and highlighted experimental strategies for using organoids to attain new insights into human brain pathology.11 In “Cancer modeling meets human organoid technology” (2019), David Tuveson and Hans Clevers focused on cancer in a review of the current state and future prospects of the rapidly evolving tumor organoid field. In 2021, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published “The Emerging Field of Human Neural Organoids, Transplants, and Chimeras: Science, Ethics, and Governance.”12

    Emerging Topic:

    Anticipation Potential

    Organoids

    Sub-Fields:

    Foundational research
    Hybrid organoids
    Translation and personalised organoids
    Enabling technologies
    Lab-grown replicas of human organs promise to serve as a better proxy for the study of tissue function and disease than either cell lines or animal models. Research on organoids is already well underway, explaining the lower anticipation scores in this area. While awareness of this field is relatively high, research into hybrid organoids is less-well discussed. Of the subtopics analysed, the standardisation and commercialisation of these technologies is deemed the most in need of anticipation, thanks to the impact it could have on businesses and communities.

    GESDA Best Reads and Key Resources