There are likely to be multiple competing platforms providing access to AR, analogous to different operating systems for PCs and smartphones. For the full potential of AR to be realised these platforms will need to be interoperable, which will require the development of common standards for things like 3D graphics, spatial data and the physics governing virtual content.22 Platforms will also have to address tricky questions around what elements of AR should be shared experiences and what should be controlled by users. The diversity of content that AR enables will also require innovations in moderation algorithms and technologies.23
An AR platform is no longer for visual display only. Various ICT algorithms and sensor technologies have been integrated to build the basic elements for digital twins, utilising cloud, edge and fog computing, microservice and kubernetes to facilitate speed and ease of communication.